Ministers should hold NHS managers to account if whistleblowers suffer reprisals for voicing their concerns, the National Audit Office (NAO) has said.
The Department of Health should "take the lead" to make sure that people who come forward with concerns feel protected in the health service, according to a new NAO report.
The news comes after United Lincolnshire Hospitals Trust tried to silence a former chief executive from speaking out about patient safety concerns as part of a unfair dismissal case settlement.
The trust is one of 14 being investigated by health chiefs over high mortality rates in the wake of the public inquiry report into serious failures at Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust that led to hundreds of unnecessary deaths.
The NAO report, which examined concerns over Cornwall's out-of-hours doctors service, said whistleblowers played a significant role in highlighting problems with the service. It says: "To help reassure whistleblowers, the department should instruct NHS bodies to publish their whistleblowing policies. This would help ensure that local policies are transparent, consistent and fully compliant with national policy. The department should also make sure local NHS bodies hold managers to account if whistleblowers suffer reprisals."
Serco, the company that provides the out-of-hours GP service in the region, came under fire last year after a number of whistleblowers came forward with worries about the service. Concerns were raised that Serco staff were altering data about the performance of the out-of-hours service and, subsequently, health regulator the Care Quality Commission said the firm was not meeting four of the essential standards of quality and safety.
The NAO report states that last year Serco regularly had insufficient staff to fill all clinical shifts, but a review found that there was "no evidence" that the service provided was clinically unsafe.
Dr Louis Warren, who manages the Serco service in Cornwall, said: "Over the last six months the GP out-of-hours service that Serco provides in Cornwall has been the subject of the most comprehensive scrutiny and exhaustive series of audits possible. The NAO report has not only substantiated what the CQC and other reports have already shown - that the service is safe and well regarded by patients - but also confirms that we have taken swift and decisive action in response to the previous CQC report."
Health minister Lord Howe said: "It is absolutely critical that all staff working within the NHS feel able to speak up and raise concerns and that every organisation providing NHS services takes concerns seriously and acts on them. We are pleased to note that after staff raised concerns at Serco, improvements are being made, and that both the PCT and Serco have been clear with staff of the importance of raising concerns.
"Staff on the frontline know when patient care needs to improve - better support for whistleblowers will help create a culture where staff are able to raise genuine concerns in good faith, without fear of reprisal. That's why we have already taken action - strengthening the NHS constitution and setting up a helpline to give whistleblowers the support they need to raise concerns both inside and outside their organisation."